pacman::p_load(tidyverse, lubridate, here, skimr, yaml, ggplot2, ggalt, gplots,
               sf, rnaturalearth, rnaturalearthdata, maps, tools, RColorBrewer

inputfile <- here::here("write/input/uw-chr-i213-public.csv.gz")

i213 <- read_delim(
    inputfile, delim = "|", 
    col_types = cols(
        # .default                     = col_character(),
        source                       = col_factor(),
        sex                          = col_factor(),
        cmplxn                       = col_character(),
        country_of_citizenship       = col_factor(),
        year                         = col_double(),
        month                        = col_double(),
        day                          = col_double(),
        hour                         = col_double(),
        minute                       = col_double(),
        fy                           = col_double(),
        age                          = col_double(),
        accompanied_juvenile_flag    = col_double(),
        unaccompanied_juvenile_flag  = col_double(),
        custody_redetermination_flag = col_double()

Descriptive analysis of UWCHR I-213 collection

As part of its “Human Rights At Home” and “Immigrant Rights Observatory” research initiatives, the University of Washington Center for Human Rights (UWCHR) has obtained a collection of I-213 “Record of Deportable/Inadmissible Alien” forms via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests to the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS). These internal forms documenting apprehensions by US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP) are an important source of qualitative and quantitative information regarding immigration enforcement practices and patterns.

Under FOIA, UWCHR initially requested all I-213s produced by both CBP and ICE in the state of Washington from 2012-2017; when the agencies failed to adhere to the requirements of FOIA—first claiming privacy waivers were needed for every individual form and then claiming that as law enforcement agencies, they were exempt from providing such records—UWCHR sued in September 2018. UWCHR underwent separate settlement negotiations with each sub-agency. In these discussions, CBP agreed to provide a sample of all documents produced by staff in the agency’s Blaine and Spokane sectors from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2017; and ICE agreed to provide copies of all documents produced from January 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020 by staff from the agency’s Seattle field office.

The resulting PDF forms were scraped and cleaned in a separate private repository developed by the Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG) and maintained by UWCHR. Cleaning and hand-coding of resulting data is ongoing; the following is a preliminary descriptive analysis of the collection. Maps of apprehension locations by I-213 at_near value and at_near county per capita were previously published for UWCHR’s August 2021 report “Protecting Immigrant Rights: Is Washington’s Law Working?”, see:

I-213 structure

Each record is made up of an I-213 “Record of Deportable/Inadmissible Alien” form collecting subject identification, biometrics, and apprehension characteristics data in a structured format (typographical variations may be introduced in the scraping process, we have attempted to standardize values in the cleaning process); followed by a semi-structured “Narrative” field containing additional description of the subject and apprehension, usually continued from the I-213 on one or more I-831 “Continuation Page” forms. Personally identifying information such as names and unique identifiers are redacted; narratives also include redactions under various FOIA exemptions. A small number of forms are fully redacted.

“Narrative” field contents are excluded from the public version of this dataset because they may contain sensitive information. Dataset fields following the naming convention mentions_* reflect simple str_detect() results for keywords in the “Narrative” text as described in the repository README.

While I-213 form contents are relatively structured, some fields may be left blank and the logic or meaning of codes used in some fields is obscure. For more details, see this ICE “I-213 Preparation” document released via FOIA; note that in some cases field contents differ from those described here.

Sample I-213 form

The following is a typical I-213 form representing an apprehension upon entry at Sea-Tac International Airport. Note redacted and blank I-213 fields, as well as fields filled with “See Narrative”. Most but not all text fields are scraped for the dataset analyzed here. Tick boxes are not scraped.